EC/MS is used successfully for simulating most major reactions that take place in the environmental degradation process, i.e., aquatic (aqueous), photolytic (photochemical), microbial conversions including adduct formation (phase II). In addition relevant reactive intermediates useful in the understanding of the metabolic (degradation) pathway of xenobiotic have been generated electrochemically – impossible to extract form environmental samples, i.e., soil.
Predicting the persistence of chemicals/pollutants in the environment based on the EC potential is another promising application.EC/MS is a simple, inexpensive and extremely fast approach to get a first insight into the degradation process of pollutants in the environment.
Sulfadiazine (SDZ) - a typical sulfonamide used as a veterinary antibiotic and with well known metabolites (degradation products) in soil and from literature - is used to study the metabolism of xenobiotics in the environment and to compare with the electrochemical degradation.
Mass Voltammogram measured in flow injection mode while a potential ramp from 0 to 2,500 mV was applied with a slope of 10 mV/s. Effect of oxidation potential on selected m/z ratio indicates the degradation of SDZ and the formation of the metabolites, starting at ca. 1100 mV. All major metabolites were generated in only a few minutes using infusion EC/MS.Ref. Hoffmann Th., et al., Anal Bioanal Chem, 399 (2011) 1859 - 1868
Proposed reaction scheme, click here
EC ic used successfully to initiate chemical reactions (adduct formations, Phase II reactions) between the xenobiotic (e.g., pollutant, herbicide, pesticide, etc.) or its metabolite with environmental matrices such as natural organic matter (NOM) to form non-extractable residues (NERs) which now become accessible to MS analysis.
Furthermore, the applied potential necessary for the degradation of the Xenobiotic in the electrochemical cell provides a direct information on the persistence or stability in the environment.EC/MS provides a much faster and better understanding of xenobiotics degradation, their risk assessment and persistence in environmental degradation then using tedious and daunting extraction procedures form soil.
For more information about Environmental Degradation / Persistence see tab with References above or contact Antec at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Hoffmann T, Hofmann D, Klumpp E, Küppers S.; Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011 Feb;399(5):1859-68. doi: 10.1007/s00216-010-4575-x. Epub 2010 Dec 19.
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Christophorus et al.; poster
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