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Forensic Toxicology

Designer Drugs, Drugs of Abuse, Illicit Drugs, etc.


Recently, Electrochemistry (EC) as a fast and efficient in vitro technique has found great interest tomimick the metabolism of designer drugs (phase I).

Using EC upfront MS, e.g., EC/(LC)/MS, designer drugs can be oxidized instantaneously thereby
mimicking the enzymatic biotransformation of the Cytochrome P450 reactions that takesplace in the liver. This biomimetic oxidation is much faster and has zero interaction with anybiological matrices (e.g., cell membranes, plasma, urine, etc.) and allows further for isolatedphase II reactions, i.e., adduct formation.

Morphine oxidation on glassy carbon electrode using ROXY EC system

Three oxidation cycles are shown, illustrating the reproducible formation of hydroxymorphine (m/z 302) out of morphine (m/z 286). Continuous scan mode 0-2 V, 20 mV/s.  50% ACN in 20 mM ammonium formate buffer, pH 7.4

Courtesy: PrzemysÅ‚aw Mielczarek,  Dep. of Biochemistry and Neurobiology, AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland




The successful use of the ROXY EC system for the synthesis of metabolites relevant to designer drugs has also been shown in the award winning oral presentation of Dr. Lars Ambach (Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland), presented at the 50th Annual Meeting of the International Association of Forensic Toxicologist, TIFAT 2012 held in Hamamatsu, Japan. For abstract, click here.


ROXY EC System used for on-line infusion EC/MS in Forensic Toxicology

Application Notes

  • 210_001_10 - Fast Mimicking Phase 1 and 2 Acetaminophen
  • 210_004_07 - Oxidative Metabolism Amodiaquine
  • 210_002_04 - Automated Screening on REDOX Reactions

Application Notebook


  • 221_079_01 - Insights into Nucleic Acids Oxidation by EC─LC─MS
  • 221_090_01 - Degradation of Xenobiotics by OnLine EC─MS (Sulfadiazine)
  • 221_116_01 - Enhanced Pharmaceutical Stability Testing (Naltrexone, Oxycodone)
  • 221_117_01 - Mimicking Drug Metabolism (Verapamil, Amodiaquine)
  • 221_226_02 - The Application of EC─MS to Pharmaceutical Stability Testing and Degradant Synthesis (Ezlopitant)
  • 221_232_01 - Lipid Oxidation (Phospholipids ─ POPE, PLPE, PAPE)
  • 221_240_01 - Metabolism (Overview ROXY EC applications)
  • 221_241_01 - Reduction (Insuline, Avastin Fab)
  • 221_242_01 - Drug Stability Testing (Ezlopitant)
  • 221_244_01 - New EC cell for reduction of protein disulfide bonds in HDX─MS (Insuline, NGF, VEGF)
  • 221_246_01 - Environmental degradation (Triclosan)
  • 221_247_01 - EC Simulation of Phase I Metabolism of Three Novel Cardiovascular Drugs (Rivaroxaban, Aliskiren, Prasugrel)
  • 221_248_02 - EC Reduction of Disulfide Bonds in Proteins & Biopharmaceuticals (Insulin, Avastin Fab, NGF, VEGF)

24300001 - Electrochemical simulation of cocaine metabolism - a step towards predictive toxicology for drugs of abuse
Przemyslaw Mielczarek, Hana Raoof, Jolanta H. Kotlinska, Piotr Stefanowicz, Zbigniew Szewczuk, Piotr Suder and Jerzy Silberring; European Journal of Mass Spectrometry,Volume 20 Issue 4, Pages 279 - 285 (2014)

24300000 - Determination of psychostimulants and their metabolites by electrochemistry linked on-line to flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow mass spectrometry
Marek Smoluch, Przemyslaw Mielczarek, Edward Reszke, Gary M. Hieftje and Jerzy Silberring; Analyst. 2014 Sep 7;139(17):4350-5

See our support pages for a full list of recent literature