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Dedicated Electrochemistry system for EC/MS




The ROXY™ EC is the ideal introduction system for Electrospray Ionization (ESI)-MS for single compound conversion. For known compounds (e.g., drug candidates, pollutants, pesticides, etc) a quick profiling and/or reconfirmation of potential metabolites is often sufficient for decision making. Therefore, target compounds can be directly infused through the electrochemical ReactorCell™ into the MS, often without the need of any liquid chromatographic separation (HPLC), making EC/MS a very powerful tool for fast metabolic profiling and related applications.

The resulting time and cost savings are substantial when compared with daunting in vivo or in vitro experiments. The ROXY™ EC System is supplied with a dual syringe infusion pump and all connecting tubing and parts for immediate installation and use. A short movie is available demostrating setting up a ROXY measurement.

Product Flyers



  • 221_079_01 - Insights into Nucleic Acids Oxidation by EC─LC─MS
  • 221_090_01 - Degradation of Xenobiotics by OnLine EC─MS (Sulfadiazine)
  • 221_116_01 - Enhanced Pharmaceutical Stability Testing (Naltrexone, Oxycodone)
  • 221_117_01 - Mimicking Drug Metabolism (Verapamil, Amodiaquine)
  • 221_226_02 - The Application of EC─MS to Pharmaceutical Stability Testing and Degradant Synthesis (Ezlopitant)
  • 221_232_01 - Lipid Oxidation (Phospholipids ─ POPE, PLPE, PAPE)
  • 221_240_01 - Metabolism (Overview ROXY EC applications)
  • 221_241_01 - Reduction (Insuline, Avastin Fab)
  • 221_242_01 - Drug Stability Testing (Ezlopitant)
  • 221_244_01 - New EC cell for reduction of protein disulfide bonds in HDX─MS (Insuline, NGF, VEGF)
  • 221_246_01 - Environmental degradation (Triclosan)
  • 221_247_01 - EC Simulation of Phase I Metabolism of Three Novel Cardiovascular Drugs (Rivaroxaban, Aliskiren, Prasugrel)
  • 221_248_02 - EC Reduction of Disulfide Bonds in Proteins & Biopharmaceuticals (Insulin, Avastin Fab, NGF, VEGF)


Part no Description
211.0070 ROXY Exceed system with ReactorCell
211.0072 ROXY Exceed system for S-S reduction
211.0074 ROXY Exceed system with µ-PrepCell 2.0


The ROXY EC System comprises the following parts:

27526403 - Electrochemical oxidation coupled with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to study the oxidative stability of active pharmaceutical ingredients in solution: A comparison of off-line and on-line approaches.
S. Torres et al.; J. Pharm. Biomedical Analysis 131 (2016) 71-79

26299525 - The application of electrochemistry to pharmaceutical stability testing--comparison with in silico prediction and chemical forced degradation approaches
S. Torres et al.; J. Pharm. Biomedical Analysis 115 (2015) 487-501

op500312e - Rapid Synthesis of Pharmaceutical Oxidation Products Using Electrochemistry: A Systematic Study of N-Dealkylation Reactions of Fesoterodine Using a Commercially Available Synthesis Cell
S. Torres et al.; Org. Process Res. Dev. 19 (2015) 11, 15961603

201500101 - Electrochemical oxidation of cholesterol: An easy way to generate numerous oxysterols in short reaction times
D Weber, Z Ni, D Vetter, R Hoffmann, M Fedorova; Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2016, 118, 325-331

201500219 - Generation of oxysterols formed by free radicals and enzymes by electrochemical oxidation
G Lizard; Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2016, 118, 135-136

16304419 - Electrochemical oxidation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics: Mechanism, residual antibacterial activity and toxicity change
Linyan Zhu, Beatrix Santiago-Schbel, Hongxia Xiao, Henner Hollert, Stephan Kueppers; Water Research, 102, 1 October 2016, Pages 5262

456535 - An efficient laboratory workflow for environmental risk assessment of organic chemicals
Linyan Zhu, Beatrix Santiago-Schbel, Hongxia Xiao, Bjrn Thiele, Zhiliang Zhu, Yanling Qiu, Henner Hollert, Stephan Kppers; Chemosphere, 131, July 2015, Pages 3440

219673 - Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to study oxidative degradation of environmentally relevant pharmaceuticals by electrochemistry and ozonation
Helene Faber, Holger Lutze, Pablo Lores Lareo, Lisa Frensemeier, Martin Vogel, Torsten C. Schmidt, Uwe Karst; Journal of Chromatography A, 1343, 23 May 2014, Pages 152159

26369777 - In-Depth Characterization of Protein Disulfide Bonds by Online Liquid Chromatography-Electrochemistry-Mass Spectrometry
Switzar L, Nicolardi S, Rutten JW, Oberstein SA, Aartsma-Rus A, van der Burgt YE;

26249042 - Conformational analysis of large and highly disulfide-stabilized proteins by integrating online electrochemical reduction into an optimized H/D exchange mass spectrometry workflow.
Trabjerg E, Jakobsen RU, Mysling S, Christensen S, Jrgensen TJ, Rand KD;

24300001 - Electrochemical simulation of cocaine metabolism - a step towards predictive toxicology for drugs of abuse
Przemyslaw Mielczarek, Hana Raoof, Jolanta H. Kotlinska, Piotr Stefanowicz, Zbigniew Szewczuk, Piotr Suder and Jerzy Silberring; European Journal of Mass Spectrometry,Volume 20 Issue 4, Pages 279 - 285 (2014)

24300000 - Determination of psychostimulants and their metabolites by electrochemistry linked on-line to flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow mass spectrometry
Marek Smoluch, Przemyslaw Mielczarek, Edward Reszke, Gary M. Hieftje and Jerzy Silberring; Analyst. 2014 Sep 7;139(17):4350-5

ac500383c - Structural Analysis of an Intact Monoclonal Antibody by Online Electrochemical Reduction of Disulfide Bonds and Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry
Simone Nicolardi, Andre M. Deelder , Magnus Palmblad , and Yuri E. M. van der Burgt; Anal. Chem., 2014, 86 (11), pp 5376-5382

24251601 - Electrochemical reduction of disulfide-containing proteins for hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry.
Mysling S, Salbo R, Ploug M, Jrgensen TJ.; Anal Chem. 2013 Nov 19. [Epub ahead of print]

24080000 - Life Science Applications of Electrochemistry Coupled to Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Herbert Oberacher, Florian Pitterl; LC/GC SPECIAL ISSUES Volume 39, Issue 10, pp. s26-s33

24077854 - A novel electrochemical method for efficient reduction of disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins prior to MS detection.
Kraj A, Brouwer HJ, Reinhoud N, Chervet JP.; Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013 Sep 29. [Epub ahead of print]

24018861 - On-Line Electrochemical Reduction of Disulfide Bonds: Improved FTICR-CID and -ETD Coverage of Oxytocin and Hepcidin.
Nicolardi S, Giera M, Kooijman P, Kraj A, Chervet JP, Deelder AM, van der Burgt YE.; J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2013 Sep 10. [Epub ahead of print]

23812883 - EC-SPE-stripline-NMR analysis of reactive products: a feasibility study.
Falck D, Oosthoek-de Vries AJ, Kolkman A, Lingeman H, Honing M, Wijmenga SS, Kentgens AP, Niessen WM.; Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013 Aug;405(21):6711-20. doi: 10.1007/s00216-013-7158-9. Epub 2013 Jun 30.

23896946 - Recent advances of electrochemical mass spectrometry.
Liu P, Lu M, Zheng Q, Zhang Y, Dewald HD, Chen H.; Analyst. 2013 Oct 7;138(19):5519-39. doi: 10.1039/c3an00709j.

23763302 - Boron-doped diamond electrodes for the electrochemical oxidation and cleavage of peptides.
Roeser J, Alting NF, Permentier HP, Bruins AP, Bischoff R.; Anal Chem. 2013 Jul 16;85(14):6626-32. doi: 10.1021/ac303795c. Epub 2013 Jun 25.

22772139 - Ascorbic acid for homogenous redox buffering in electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry.
Plattner S, Erb R, Chervet JP, Oberacher H.; Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012 Sep;404(5):1571-9. doi: 10.1007/s00216-012-6196-z. Epub 2012 Jul 8.

23352827 - Influence of cimetidine and its metabolites on Cisplatin--investigation of adduct formation by means of electrochemistry/liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry.
Brauckmann C, Faber H, Lanvers-Kaminsky C, Sperling M, Karst U.; J Chromatogr A. 2013 Mar 1;1279:49-57. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2012.12.069. Epub 2013 Jan 10.

23286982 - In chemico evaluation of skin metabolism: Investigation of eugenol and isoeugenol by electrochemistry coupled to liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.
Melles D, Vielhaber T, Baumann A, Zazzeroni R, Karst U.; J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Jan 15;913-914:106-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2012.12.004. Epub 2012 Dec 11.

23176740 - Metabolic studies of the Amaryllidaceous alkaloids galantamine and lycorine based on electrochemical simulation in addition to in vivo and in vitro models.
Jahn S, Seiwert B, Kretzing S, Abraham G, Regenthal R, Karst U.; Anal Chim Acta. 2012 Dec 5;756:60-72. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2012.10.042. Epub 2012 Nov 1.

23020795 - Improved conversion rates in drug screening applications using miniaturized electrochemical cells with frit channels.
Odijk M, Olthuis W, van den Berg A, Qiao L, Girault H.; Anal Chem. 2012 Nov 6;84(21):9176-83. doi: 10.1021/ac301888g. Epub 2012 Oct 22.

25531627 - Mass Spectrometric Detection of Short-Lived Drug Metabolites Generated in an Electrochemical Microfluidic Chip
Floris T. G. van den Brink, Lars Bueter, Mathieu Odijk, Wouter Olthuis, Uwe Karst, and Albert van den Berg; Anal. Chem., 2015, 87 (3), pp 1527-1535

22971210 - Combination of electrochemistry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for metabolism studies.
Simon H, Melles D, Jacquoilleot S, Sanderson P, Zazzeroni R, Karst U.; Anal Chem. 2012 Oct 16;84(20):8777-82. doi: 10.1021/ac302152a. Epub 2012 Sep 25.

22819944 - Bottom-up approach for the reaction of xenobiotics and their metabolites with model substances for natural organic matter by electrochemistry-mass spectrometry (EC-MS).
Chen L, Hofmann D, Klumpp E, Xiang X, Chen Y, Kppers S.; Chemosphere. 2012 Nov;89(11):1376-83. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.05.105. Epub 2012 Jul 21.

22772139 - Ascorbic acid for homogenous redox buffering in electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry.
Plattner S, Erb R, Chervet JP, Oberacher H.; Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012 Sep;404(5):1571-9. doi: 10.1007/s00216-012-6196-z. Epub 2012 Jul 8.

22704885 - Electrochemistry coupled to (liquid chromatography/) mass spectrometry--current state and future perspectives.
Jahn S, Karst U.; J Chromatogr A. 2012 Oct 12;1259:16-49. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2012.05.066. Epub 2012 May 27. Review.

22592989 - Electrochemistry/mass spectrometry as a tool in the investigation of the potent skin sensitizer p-phenylenediamine and its reactivity toward nucleophiles.
Jahn S, Faber H, Zazzeroni R, Karst U.; Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2012 Jun 30;26(12):1453-64. doi: 10.1002/rcm.6249.

22592985 - Electrochemistry/liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to demonstrate irreversible binding of the skin allergen p-phenylenediamine to proteins.
Jahn S, Faber H, Zazzeroni R, Karst U.; Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2012 Jun 30;26(12):1415-25. doi: 10.1002/rcm.6247.

22525874 - Identification and quantification of potential metabolites of Gd-based contrast agents by electrochemistry/separations/mass spectrometry.
Telgmann L, Faber H, Jahn S, Melles D, Simon H, Sperling M, Karst U.; J Chromatogr A. 2012 Jun 1;1240:147-55. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2012.03.088. Epub 2012 Apr 3.

22448817 - Electrochemistry-assisted top-down characterization of disulfide-containing proteins.
Zhang Y, Cui W, Zhang H, Dewald HD, Chen H.; Anal Chem. 2012 Apr 17;84(8):3838-42. doi: 10.1021/ac300106y. Epub 2012 Apr 4.

22451054 - An optimized electrochemistry-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for studying guanosine oxidation.
Erb R, Plattner S, Pitterl F, Brouwer HJ, Oberacher H.; Electrophoresis. 2012 Feb;33(4):614-21. doi: 10.1002/elps.201100406.

22370588 - Electrochemistry-mass spectrometry: an emerging hyphenated technique for bioanalysis.
Vogel M, Karst U.; Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012 Apr;403(2):333-4. doi: 10.1007/s00216-012-5863-4. No abstract available.

22237914 - Investigation of some biologically relevant redox reactions using electrochemical mass spectrometry interfaced by desorption electrospray ionization.
Lu M, Wolff C, Cui W, Chen H.; Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012 Apr;403(2):355-65. doi: 10.1007/s00216-011-5679-7. Epub 2012 Jan 12.

22227746 - Electrochemical oxidation and protein adduct formation of aniline: a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry study.
Melles D, Vielhaber T, Baumann A, Zazzeroni R, Karst U.; Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012 Apr;403(2):377-84. doi: 10.1007/s00216-011-5673-0. Epub 2012 Jan 8.

22227812 - On-line electrochemistry-bioaffinity screening with parallel HR-LC-MS for the generation and characterization of modified p38? kinase inhibitors.
Falck D, de Vlieger JS, Giera M, Honing M, Irth H, Niessen WM, Kool J.; Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012 Apr;403(2):367-75. doi: 10.1007/s00216-011-5663-2. Epub 2012 Jan 8.

22227826 - Simulation of the oxidative metabolism of diclofenac by electrochemistry/(liquid chromatography/)mass spectrometry.
Faber H, Melles D, Brauckmann C, Wehe CA, Wentker K, Karst U.; Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012 Apr;403(2):345-54. doi: 10.1007/s00216-011-5665-0. Epub 2012 Jan 9.

22098935 - Investigation of the biotransformation pathway of verapamil using electrochemistry/liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry - a comparative study with liver cell microsomes.
Jahn S, Baumann A, Roscher J, Hense K, Zazzeroni R, Karst U.; J Chromatogr A. 2011 Dec 23;1218(51):9210-20. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2011.10.052. Epub 2011 Oct 28.

22022718 - Electrochemistry/liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as a tool in metabolism studies.
Faber H, Jahn S, Knnemeyer J, Simon H, Melles D, Vogel M, Karst U.; Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2011 Sep 5;50(37):A52-8.

22000962 - Formation and characterization of covalent guanosine adducts with electrochemistry-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Plattner S, Erb R, Pitterl F, Brouwer HJ, Oberacher H.; J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2012 Feb 1;883-884:198-204. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2011.09.050. Epub 2011 Oct 1.

21645661 - High temperature liquid chromatography hyphenated with ESI-MS and ICP-MS detection for the structural characterization and quantification of halogen containing drug metabolites.
de Vlieger JS, Giezen MJ, Falck D, Tump C, van Heuveln F, Giera M, Kool J, Lingeman H, Wieling J, Honing M, Irth H, Niessen WM.; Anal Chim Acta. 2011 Jul 18;698(1-2):69-76. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2011.04.053. Epub 2011 May 5.

21615156 - Metabolite identification of a radiotracer by electrochemistry coupled to liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric and radioactivity detection.
Baumann A, Faust A, Law MP, Kuhlmann MT, Kopka K, Schfers M, Karst U.; Anal Chem. 2011 Jul 1;83(13):5415-21. doi: 10.1021/ac2002092. Epub 2011 Jun 10.

21359310 - Coupling of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry by desorption electrospray ionization (DESI).
Zhang Y, Yuan Z, Dewald HD, Chen H.; Chem Commun (Camb). 2011 Apr 14;47(14):4171-3. doi: 10.1039/c0cc05736c. Epub 2011 Feb 28.

21197958 - Online mass spectrometric analysis of proteins/peptides following electrolytic cleavage of disulfide bonds.
Zhang Y, Dewald HD, Chen H.; J Proteome Res. 2011 Mar 4;10(3):1293-304. doi: 10.1021/pr101053q. Epub 2011 Feb 14.

21170519 - Electrochemistry-mass spectrometry for mechanistic studies and simulation of oxidation processes in the environment.
Hoffmann T, Hofmann D, Klumpp E, Kppers S.; Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011 Feb;399(5):1859-68. doi: 10.1007/s00216-010-4575-x. Epub 2010 Dec 19.

20861155 - Electrochemistry-mass spectrometry unveils the formation of reactive triclocarban metabolites.
Baumann A, Lohmann W, Rose T, Ahn KC, Hammock BD, Karst U, Schebb NH.; Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Dec;38(12):2130-8. doi: 10.1124/dmd.110.034546. Epub 2010 Sep 22.

20393841 - Electrochemical simulation of oxidation processes involving nucleic acids monitored with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry.
Pitterl F, Chervet JP, Oberacher H.; Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010 Jun;397(3):1203-15. doi: 10.1007/s00216-010-3674-z.

20370599 - Online electrochemistry/mass spectrometry in drug metabolism studies: principles and applications.
Baumann A, Karst U.; Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2010 Jun;6(6):715-31. doi: 10.1517/17425251003713527. Review.

19233363 - Metabolic studies of tetrazepam based on electrochemical simulation in comparison to in vivo and in vitro methods.
Baumann A, Lohmann W, Schubert B, Oberacher H, Karst U.; J Chromatogr A. 2009 Apr 10;1216(15):3192-8. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2009.02.001. Epub 2009 Feb 10.

24300002 - Online Electrochemical Reduction of the Disulfide Bond(s) in Oxytocin and Hepcidin Results in Different CID and ETD Fragmentation Spectra
Martin A. Giera; Simone Nicolardi; Pieter Kooijman; Agnieszka Kraj; Jean-Pierre Chervet; Andre M. Deelder; Yuri E.M. van der Burgt; ASMS 2013 poster

24300003 - Simulation of metabolic processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using electrochemistry/mass spectrometry
Tina Wigger, Lars Buter, Philipp Strohmide and Uwe Karst; ASMS 2014 poster

24300004 - Simulation of redox metabolism
Christophorus et al.; poster

200900358 - On-Line Electrochemistry/Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (EC/ESI-MS) for the Generation and Identification of Nucleotide Oxidation Products
Baumann A, Lohmann W, Jahn S, Karst U.; Electroanalysis. 2010 Feb; 22(3): 286-92. doi:10.1002/elan.200900358

Thesis - Electrochemical Oxidation and Cleavage of Peptides in Bioanalysis, Mechanistic Aspects & Method Development Dissertation
J. Roeser; Thesis

676042 - Electrochemistry and LC/MS for Metabolite Generation and Identification: Tools, Technologies, and Trends
Wiebke Lohmann, Anne Baumann, Uwe Karst; LCGC Asia Pacific, Volume 13, Issue 1

815978e - Interaction of thimerosal with proteins-ethylmercury adduct formation of human serum albumin and b-lactoglobulin A
Stefan Trumpler , Wiebke Lohmann, Bjorn Meermann, Wolfgang Buscher, Michael Sperling and Uwe Karst ;

26116769 - Preparing the key metabolite of Z-ligustilide in vivo by a specific electrochemical reaction
F Duan, W Xu, J Liu, Z Jia, K Chen; Journal of Separation Science (2018) 41: 2799-2807

26116770 - Prediction of biotransformation products of the fungicide fluopyram by electrochemistry coupled online to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and comparison
TF Mekonnen, U Panne, M Koch; Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (2018) 410: 2607-2617

26116771 - Electrochemical simulation of triclosan metabolism and toxicological evaluation
L Zhu, Y Shao, H Xiao, B Santiago-Schbel; Science of the Total Environment (2018) 622623: 1193-1201

26116772 - Electrochemistry coupled online to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for fast simulation of biotransformation reactions of the insecticide chlorpyrifos
U Panne, M Koch; Anal Bioanal Chem (2017) 409:33593368

26116773 - Electrochemical oxidation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics: Mechanism, residual antibacterial activity and toxicity change
L Zhu, B Santiago-Schbel, H Xiao, H Hollert; Water Research (2016) 102: 52-62

26116774 - KAE609 (Cipargamin), a new spiroindolone agent for the treatment of malaria: Evaluation of the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion of a single oral 300
SEW Huskey, C Zhu, A Fredenhagen, J Kuhnol; Drug Metabolism and Disposition (2016) DOI: https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.115.069187

26116775 - pharmaceutical oxidation products using electrochemistry: a systematic study of N-dealkylation reactions of fesoterodine using a commercially available synthesis cell
S Torres, R Brown, R Szucs, JM Hawkins; Org. Process Res. Dev. (2015) 19: 1596-1603

26116776 - An efficient laboratory workflow for environmental risk assessment of organic chemicals
L Zhu, B Santiago-Schbel, H Xiao, B Thiele, Z Zhu; Chemosphere (2015) 131: 34-40

00216-013-7021 - Generation of statin drug metabolites through electrochemical and enzymatic oxidations
SmritiKhera, NaHu; Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, July 2013,Volume 405,Issue18,pp 6009601

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